Dependency Injection in Spring

Dependency Injection (DI) is a core concept in the Spring Framework, and it plays a crucial role in achieving loose coupling and promoting modular, maintainable code. Dependency Injection is a design pattern in which the dependencies of a class are provided from the outside rather than being created within the class itself. Spring facilitates dependency injection through its Inversion of Control (IoC) container.

Key Concepts:

1. Inversion of Control (IoC):

IoC is a design principle where the control of a system is inverted, and the framework is responsible for managing and controlling the flow of the application. In the context of Spring, IoC means that the Spring container is in charge of managing and wiring the components (beans) in an application.

2. Types of Dependency Injection:

Spring supports three main types of dependency injection:

  • Constructor Injection: Dependencies are injected through the constructor of a class.
  • Setter Injection: Dependencies are injected using setter methods of a class.
  • Field Injection: Dependencies are injected directly into the fields of a class.

3. Spring IoC Container:

The Spring IoC container is responsible for managing the beans, their lifecycle, and their dependencies. It performs dependency injection by wiring the dependencies when creating or initializing beans. The two main types of Spring containers are:

  • BeanFactory: This is the simplest container that provides basic features such as bean instantiation, wiring, and lifecycle management.
  • ApplicationContext: This is a more advanced container that extends the capabilities of the BeanFactory. It includes additional features such as event propagation, AOP integration, and support for internationalization.

Dependency Injection Example:

Consider a simple example where a Car class depends on an Engine class. Without dependency injection, the Car class might create an instance of Engine internally. With dependency injection, the Engine dependency is injected from the outside.

// Without Dependency Injection
public class CarWithoutDI {
    private Engine engine;

    public CarWithoutDI() {
        this.engine = new Engine(); // Dependency created internally

    // Car methods using the engine

// With Dependency Injection
public class CarWithDI {
    private Engine engine;

    // Dependency injected through constructor
    public CarWithDI(Engine engine) {
        this.engine = engine;

    // Car methods using the injected engine

In the Spring framework, the dependency injection process involves defining beans in a configuration file (XML or Java-based) and letting the Spring IoC container handle the injection.

Spring Dependency Injection Example:

1. Define Beans in Configuration:

<!-- applicationContext.xml -->
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"

    <!-- Define the Engine bean -->
    <bean id="engine" class="com.example.Engine" />

    <!-- Define the Car bean with constructor injection -->
    <bean id="car" class="com.example.Car">
        <constructor-arg ref="engine" />


2. Create Application Context:

// Application.java
import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;

public class Application {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Create the Spring IoC container
        ApplicationContext context = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("applicationContext.xml");

        // Retrieve the Car bean from the container
        Car car = (Car) context.getBean("car");

        // Use the Car object (dependency injected with Engine)

3. Define Java Classes:

// Engine.java
public class Engine {
    // Engine implementation

// Car.java
public class Car {
    private Engine engine;

    // Constructor Injection
    public Car(Engine engine) {
        this.engine = engine;

    public void drive() {
        System.out.println("Car is driving with the engine.");

In this example, the Car class is injected with the Engine dependency through the constructor. The Spring container manages the creation of beans, resolves dependencies, and injects them accordingly.

Benefits of Dependency Injection:

  1. Loose Coupling: Components are not tightly bound to their dependencies, making the system more flexible and modular.
  2. Testability: Easier to test components in isolation by providing mock or test dependencies during testing.
  3. Maintainability: Changes to dependencies or implementations can be made without modifying the dependent classes.
  4. Readability: Dependencies are explicitly declared, making the code more readable and easier to understand.
  5. Reusability: Components with well-defined interfaces can be easily reused in different parts of the application.


Dependency Injection is a fundamental concept in the Spring Framework that promotes loose coupling and enhances the flexibility and maintainability of Java applications. By letting the Spring IoC container handle the injection of dependencies, developers can focus on writing business logic without being concerned about managing object creation and wiring. This results in more modular, testable, and maintainable code.