Introduction to HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

HTML, or Hypertext Markup Language, is the fundamental building block of the World Wide Web. It provides the essential structure and format for creating documents on the internet, allowing developers to define the content, layout, and interactivity of web pages. In this introduction, we’ll explore the key aspects of HTML and its role in web development.

1. What is HTML?

HTML is a markup language that defines the structure and presentation of content on the web. It consists of a series of elements, each represented by a tag, which are used to enclose and describe different parts of a document. These elements can range from headings and paragraphs to images, links, and forms, enabling the creation of diverse and interactive web pages.

2. Basic Structure of an HTML Document:

An HTML document follows a standard structure that includes several key elements:

<!DOCTYPE html>
  <title>Page Title</title>
  <h1>This is a Heading</h1>
  <p>This is a paragraph of text.</p>
  • <!DOCTYPE html>: This declaration defines the document type and version of HTML. In this case, it specifies HTML5.
  • <html>: The root element that wraps all content on the page.
  • <head>: Contains meta-information about the document, such as the title that appears in the browser tab.
  • <title>: Sets the title of the web page.
  • <body>: Contains the visible content of the page, such as text, images, links, and other elements.

3. HTML Tags and Elements:

HTML uses tags to define elements within a document. Tags are enclosed in angle brackets, and most come in pairs—an opening tag and a closing tag. For example:

  • Opening Tag: <tag>
  • Closing Tag: </tag>

Here are some common HTML elements:

  • Headings: <h1>, <h2>, …, <h6>
  • Paragraphs: <p>
  • Lists: <ul>, <ol>, <li>
  • Links: <a href="https://www.example.com">Link Text</a>
  • Images: <img src="image.jpg" alt="Description">
  • Forms: <form>, <input>, <button>

4. Attributes:

HTML attributes provide additional information about elements and are always included in the opening tag. For example:

<a href="https://www.example.com" target="_blank">Visit Example</a>

In this example, href specifies the URL the link points to, and target="_blank" opens the link in a new tab.

5. Semantic HTML:

Semantic HTML introduces tags that carry meaning about the structure and content of the document. These tags contribute to better accessibility and clearer code. Examples include <header>, <nav>, <main>, <article>, <section>, <aside>, and <footer>.


HTML is the foundation upon which the web is built. As you embark on your journey into web development, understanding HTML is the first step toward creating well-structured, accessible, and visually appealing web pages. In the upcoming lessons, we’ll delve deeper into HTML, exploring its features, elements, and best practices for effective web development.